There has been long tradition of संस्कृतशब्दकोश-s both dictionaries and thesauruses. Rather, the concept of a thesaurus originated in Sanskrit, and is attributed to यास्क (about 600 BC), who is credited to have composed both निघण्टु and निरुक्त, निघण्टु being the thesaurus and निरुक्त a commentary on निघण्टु. A 682-page PDF-file at https://ia601601.us.archive.org/4/items/in.ernet.dli.2015.342036/2015.342036.99999990231827.pdf seems to contain complete निरुक्त explained in Hindi. निरुक्त is mentioned to be an essential tool वेदाङ्ग for study of Vedas.

For accomplishing comprehensive study of Vedas, there is a mention of 6 tools वेदाङ्ग-s in this verse छन्दः पादौ तु वेदस्य हस्तौ कल्पोsथ पठ्यते / ज्योतिषामयनं चक्षुर्निरुक्तं श्रोत्रमुच्यते // शिक्षा घ्राणंस्तु वेदस्य मुखं व्याकरणं स्मृतम् / तस्मात्साङ्गमधीत्यैव ब्रह्मलोके महीयते //

The most well-known thesaurus for post-Vedic literature is नामलिङ्गानुशासनम् by अमरसिंह popularly known as अमरकोश. This has three subject-wise sections काण्ड-s, स्वरादिकाण्डम् भूम्यादिकाण्डम् सामान्यकाण्डम्. In each काण्ड there are sub-sections called as वर्ग-s. Interestingly, नामलिङ्गानुशासनम् is completely in verse form. Being in verse-form, it can be committed to memory. Complete नामलिङ्गानुशासनम् or अमरकोश is available as a 200-page PDF at https://ia802901.us.archive.org/1/items/AmaraKosa/amarkosh_english.pdf  also contains English meanings of many words. It seems अमरकोश contains nearly 12,000 words. It comes to mind that, it would be good to have an index. The PDF-file linked above does contain an appendix, an index for English words, which becomes virtually an English-Sanskrit dictionary, with many Sanskrit-synonyms for a particular meaning. Mr. Ajit Krishnan presents an interesting statistical study of अमरकोश at his website <http://amara.aupasana.com/stats> whereby अमरकोश contains 1501.5 verses, which detail 11,582 words, grouped in 24 वर्ग-s, viz. स्वर्गवर्गः (688), व्योमवर्गः (26), दिग्वर्गः (348), कालवर्गः (251), धीवर्गः (158), शब्दादिवर्गः (205), नाट्यवर्गः (304), पातालभोगिवर्गः (102), नरकवर्गः (30), वारिवर्गः (353), भूमिवर्गः (145), पुरवर्गः (151), शैलवर्गः (67), वनौषधिवर्गः (1450), सिंहादिवर्गः (407), मनुष्यवर्गः (1105), ब्रह्मवर्गः (386), क्षत्रियवर्गः (893), वैश्यवर्गः (869), शूद्रवर्गः (353), विशेष्यनिघ्नवर्गः (1038), सङ्कीर्णवर्गः (357), नानार्थवर्गः (1688), अव्ययवर्गः (208). Some interesting observations =>

  1. 1450 words in वनौषधिवर्गः seems to be a pharmacopoeia of medicinal herbs and plants !
  2.  208 words in अव्ययवर्गः brings to mind that there are 2 lists of अव्यय-s in गणपाठ an appendix to अष्टाध्यायी of पाणिनि – (a) unto सूत्रम् – स्वरादिनिपातमव्ययम् (1’1’37) and (b) unto सूत्रम् – चादयोऽसत्त्वे (1’4’57). Actually गणपाठ is also a sort of a शब्दकोश for those सूत्र-s which contain the word आदि. As such धातुपाठ, which is also an appendix of अष्टाध्यायी lists some 2200 धातु-s grouped in 10 धातुगण-s. There is also some crisp meaning of धातु-s detailed in धातुपाठ. For example meaning of धातु – नृत् (to dance) is explained as अङ्गविक्षेपे or गात्रविक्षेपे. The English verb “to dance” seems to be a very poor equivalent of नृत्, because dancing of eyebrows is also अङ्गविक्षेप and नृत् अङ्गविक्षेपे गात्रविक्षेपे includes that ! The verb with widest range of meanings is अवँ रक्षण-गति-कान्ति-प्रीति-(तृप्त्यवगम’2)-प्रवेश-श्रवण-(स्वाम्यर्थयाचन)-क्रियेच्छा-(दीप्त्यवाप्त्यालिङ्गन’3)-हिंसा-दान-भाग-वृद्धिषु. 
  3. One may note that अमरकोश its actual title being नामलिङ्गानुशासनम् covers as many as 11,582 नाम-s, i.e. nouns.
    1. But some of the nouns would be adjectival, e.g. most synonyms for “cloud” मेघः such as वारिवाह, जलधर, तडित्वत्, अम्बुभृत्, etc. have adjectival derivations.
    2. As has been noted above, अमरकोश does include 208 अव्यय-s, the indeclinables.
    3. The गणपाठ enlists as many as 35 pronouns towards सूत्रम् -सर्वादीनि सर्वनामानि (1’1’27).
    4. Word-formation in Sanskrit are processes employing affixing prefixes and suffixes. The prefixes and suffixes are grammatical elements. Prefixes are प्रादयः /उपसर्गाः. Suffixes are प्रत्ययाः The three chapters 3, 4 and 5 i.e. 12 quarters containing 1721 सूत्राणि in अष्टाध्यायी discuss the grammar of


      1. Among suffixes there is a large list of उणादयः (उण्-आदयः) Because the list is large, they could not have been included in गणपाठ. Hence पाणिनि thought it fit to provide yet another appendix for अष्टाध्यायी, known as उणादिपाठ
    5. Thinking of grammatical elements and terminologies brings to mind a “Dictionary of Sanskrit Grammar” by Mahamahopadhyaya Kashinath Vasudev Abhyankar. See <https://ia600609.us.archive.org/17/items/ADictionaryOfSanskritGrammarByMahamahopadhyayaKashinathVasudevAbhyankar/DictionaryOfSanskritGrammar_abhyankar.pdf>
    6. Mention is already made above to धातुपाठ the appendix of अष्टाध्यायी, which is virtually a dictionary of verbal roots in Sanskrit.

So, अमरकोश, गणपाठ, उणादिपाठ, धातुपाठ together become dictionaries, encompassing nouns, pronouns, adjectives, prefixes, suffixes, verbs in Sanskrit.

There are other dictionaries शब्दकल्पद्रुमः (as linked here) and वाचस्पत्यम् (as linked here) being of encyclopedia-type, wherein for every word, references from Sanskrit literature are quoted.

Among Sanskrit-English dictionaries, the more famous are The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary by Apte and by Monier-Williams (linked here). A translation-tool type dictionary at <http://spokensanskrit.org/&gt; is also fairly useful.

When my father taught me Sanskrit and English, it was his mandate, that I must look up in respective dictionaries, every word, which I thought was new or difficult. We had the Apte’s Practical dictionary and also an English-English dictionary by Charles Annandale. Both these dictionaries give not just the meanings but also very engaging and interesting information about every word. My father’s mandate has etched on my mind the importance of dictionary-habit for learning any language.

शुभमस्तु !


Checklist for Comprehensive study of Sanskrit Texts

Checklist for Comprehensive study of Sanskrit Texts

Let me preface what prompted this compilation.

  1. On Sept. 17, 2018 at the भारतीयविद्वत्परिषत् google-group there was a query by Shri. MVSSP Agni, asking the meaning and characteristics of व्याख्या.
  2. In response, Prof. Siddharth Wakankar, Vadodara suggested about an article by Mr. भट्टाचार्य published by Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute Pune.
  3. Mr. Shankar located the article and posted it at the group. In that article ‘Kinds of Expositions in Sanskrit Literature’ published in ABORI (Annals of Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute) vol 36, 1955, श्री. रामशंकर भट्टाचार्य has dwelt upon characteristics of different kinds of expositions.

Since every exposition is basically a study, but different kinds of expositions seem to have different characteristics, a thought came to mind whether there can a useful compilation of ALL the characteristics, from all kinds of expositions, so that one would have sort of a check-list for any study to be a comprehensive study, instead of being limited to certain characteristics.

Mr. भट्टाचार्य has quoted the characteristics based on many references. All those references would make the Bibliographical Note.

Some characteristics mentioned by Mr. भट्टाचार्य are :-

(1) Pinpoint Specific sense of words thus remove doubts about sense of words व्याख्यानात् प्रतिपत्तिर्न हि संदेहात् अलक्षणाम् (परिभाषेन्दुशेखरः by नागेशभट्ट)

(2) व्याख्यानम् should explain, a grammatical statement in particular, by examples, counterexamples, also supplying what is wanting

  • न केवलं चर्चापदानि व्याख्यानम् .. किंतर्हि उदाहरणं प्रत्युदाहरणं वाक्याध्याहार इत्येतत् समुदितं व्याख्यानं भवति – इति पतञ्जलिः पस्पशाह्निके   
  • Also उदाहृतिः पदकृतिः पदार्थानां विवेचनम् | तन्त्राणां त्रिविधा व्याख्या शिशूनां शीघ्रबोधिनी as per प्रयोगरत्नमाला व्याकरण by (?)

(3) पदच्छेदः पदार्थोक्तिर्विग्रहो वाक्ययोजना | आक्षेपस्य समाधानं व्याख्यानं पञ्चलक्षणम् – (Ref 18th अध्याय of पराशर-उपपुराणम्)  

(4) अर्थस्य अप्रतीयमानस्य पर्यायाभिधानेन विभज्य प्रतिपादनं व्याख्या | शब्दस्यापि व्युत्पादनं व्याख्या | एवमेते द्वे व्याख्ये | तयोरर्थपरिज्ञानमेकस्याः कार्यं, शब्दपरिज्ञानमेकस्याः | (commentary by दुर्ग on 4th chapter of निरुक्त)

After elucidation of the concept of व्याख्यानम् / व्याख्या as above, Mr. भट्टाचार्य details different types of व्याख्या-s called by different names such as (A) वृत्तिः (B) वार्त्तिकम् (C) भाष्यम् (D) पञ्जिका पदभन्जिका (E) टीका (F) पस्पशः (G) उपोद्-घात (H) पद्धतिः समीक्षा (च) &c, &c

Speaking about one important purpose of व्याख्या-s being “.. to disclose the sense of words, according to the need and capacity of students…”, Mr. भट्टाचार्य makes an interesting observation in his article, in saying, “… Some शास्त्र-s were mainly composed for this purpose …” So, Mr. भट्टाचार्य seems to contend that some  शास्त्र-s can be considered to be व्याख्या-s.

The characteristics, which are already mentioned in the above discussion are

  1. पदच्छेदः –
    1. In his article, in para on (A) वृत्ति-s Mr. भट्टाचार्य quotes from कैय्याट’s प्रदीप 6’3’76 that पदच्छेद done by different वृत्तिकार-s may not be the same.
    2. There is an instance narrated in अध्याय 39 of श्रीसाईसच्चरित. It is about तद्विद्धि प्रणिपातेन परिप्रश्नेन सेवया | उपदेक्ष्यन्ति ते ज्ञानं ज्ञानिनस्तत्त्वदर्शिनः (गीता 4’34). श्रीसाईबाबा hinted that an अवग्रह would fit in the second line. It does ! ते ज्ञानं can as well be तेऽज्ञानं ! Isn’t that a radical departure from how the text has been read and continues to be read and studied through the ages ?
  2. विग्रहः Deciphering, especially the compound words
    1. अर्थस्य अप्रतीयमानस्य पर्यायाभिधानेन विभज्य प्रतिपादनम् Compound words can often be deciphered by different options and that would bring forth a different shade of meaning or an optional meaning e.g. विद्यालयः = विद्यायाः आलयः, or विद्यायां लयः यत्र or विद्यायाः लयः यत्र (😊?)
    2. The best example of पर्यायाभिधानेन विभज्य प्रतिपादनम् is possibly of as many as three different meanings of the नान्दीश्लोक in स्वप्नवासवदत्तम् by भासकवि.
  3. Grammar of words पदकृतिः शब्दपरिज्ञानम् – यद्यपि बहु नाधीषे तथापि पठ पुत्र व्याकरणम् | स्वजनः श्वजनो मा भूत् सकलं शकलं सकृत् शकृत् ||
  4. Etymological study व्युत्पादनम्
  5. Understanding meanings of words अर्थपरिज्ञानम् rather, exploring meanings of words पदार्थानां विवेचनम्  
    1. पदार्थानां विवेचनम् is the phrase from प्रयोगरत्नमाला व्याकरण, as noted in the second bullet under Para (2) above,
    2. As noted in Para (4) above, अर्थपरिज्ञानम् is the phrase from commentary by दुर्ग on 4th chapter of निरुक्त
    3. Delving into the meaning is of course the important aspect of study of any text. सूत्रार्थप्रधानो ग्रन्थो वृत्तिः इति हरदत्तमिश्रः in पदमञ्जरी (Note, पदमञ्जरी attributed to हरदत्तमिश्रः is an 11th-century commentary on the श्रीमद्वामनजयादित्यविरचिता काशिकावृत्तिः As such काशिकावृत्तिः is itself a commentary on Pāṇini. पदमञ्जरी is a commentary on काशिकावृत्तिः)
      1. This brings to mind a सुभाषितम् – अनधीते महाभाष्ये व्यर्था सा पदमञ्जरी | अधीते तु महाभाष्ये व्यर्था सा पदमञ्जरी ||
    4. In the context of Comprehensive Study, this discussion on अर्थपरिज्ञानम् and पदार्थानां विवेचनम् brings forth that Comprehensive Study should include study of what all विवेचनम् has been indulged into by distinguished पूर्वाचार्य-s / पूर्वसूरी-s.   
    5. Mr. भट्टाचार्य also quotes सूत्राणां सकलसारविवरणं वृत्तिः from अध्याय 2 of काव्यमीमांसा by राजशेखर. In the word सकलसारविवरणं the part सकल makes the scope of a वृत्तिः very comprehensive
    6. It comes to mind that the word विवेचनम् also permits self-thinking and would also permit daring to differ from thoughts and meanings propounded by पूर्वाचार्य-s. Maybe श्रीसाईबाबा’s hint to fit in an अवग्रह in the second line of गीता 4’34 is of such type as daring to differ. Even गीतारहस्य of लोकमान्य टिळक is also as much of self-thinking.
    7. Mr. भट्टाचार्य however quotes from तन्त्रवार्त्तिक (1’1’1) प्रसिद्धहानिः शब्दानाम् अप्रसिद्धे च कल्पना | न कार्या वृत्तिकारेण सति सिद्धार्थसंभवे  prohibiting such “daring to differ”.
    8. Mr. भट्टाचार्य also quotes from न्याय-वार्त्तिकतात्पर्यटीका by सुरेश्वर “तदेतद् भाष्यकारीयमुदाहरणं दूषयित्वा स्वकीयमुदाहरणमाह (Page 282)”
    9. This prohibition is also chided at by कालिदास’s पुराणमित्येव न साधु सर्वम् | न चापि काव्यं नवमित्यवद्यम् | सन्तः परीक्ष्यान्यतरद्भजन्ते | मूढः परप्रत्ययनेयबुद्धिः | as also by भवभूति’s ये नाम केचिदिह नः प्रथयन्त्यवज्ञां जानन्ति ते किमपि तान्प्रति नैष यत्नः। उत्पत्स्यते तु मम कोऽपि समानधर्मा कालो ह्ययं निरवधिर्विपुला च पृथ्वी॥  

7. Understand the context – Mr. भट्टाचार्य, in his further discussion on वृत्ति-s as types of व्याख्या-s, quotes वृत्तिकारास्तु अधिकाराणां प्रवृत्ति-निवृत्ती आचक्षते, by कैय्याट (Ref प्रदीप 7’4’24), whereby कैय्याट considers scope of वृत्ति-s to also deal in अधिकार-s i.e. Province of topics.

  1. In respect of understanding the context, years ago I picked up the phrase यत् कर्तुं नेच्छसि … करिष्यसि (गीता 18’60) and connected it up with यथेच्छसि तथा कुरु (गीता 18’63). When so connected, I came to the meaning that श्रीकृष्णभगवान् first says, “you will end up doing, what you do not wish to do” and yet soon after permits अर्जुन to “do as you wish”. I fell into an intrigue, whether this is diabolical of श्रीकृष्णभगवान्. Only after a long deliberation I realized that the intrigue was caused by my having pulled two phrases away from their contexts. The phrase यत् कर्तुं नेच्छसि … करिष्यसि had the context and hence was due to मोहात् and स्वेन स्वभावजेन कर्मणा निबद्धः The second phrase यथेच्छसि तथा कुरु had the context and hence was subject to the condition that मया आख्यातं गुह्यात् गुह्यतरं ज्ञानम् अशेषेण विमृश्य.

8. Understanding अनुवृत्ति-s (to make a meaningful sentence) वाक्ययोजना is an essential aspect for study of सूत्र-s of अष्टाध्यायी

  1. वाक्ययोजना is what is commonly known as अन्वय, though अन्वय usually means putting words in a syntactical order.
    1. In the सूत्रम् – तुमुन्ण्वुलौ क्रियायां क्रियार्थायाम् (3’3’10) there seems to be some significance why the word क्रियार्थायाम् is after the word क्रियायाम्. पाणिनि might have wanted to specify the word क्रियायाम् such that it would not include every other क्रिया but be specific to क्रियार्था क्रिया. If the words were to be in the sequence क्रियार्थायाम् क्रियायाम्, the meaning would have been the same. But with the order as in the सूत्रम् the word क्रियार्थायाम् sounds to become as much more emphatic and specific.
    2. Mr. भट्टाचार्य gives an example of how the अन्वय and in turn the total meaning can be different just by a difference in pronunciation. The example given is त्वमग्ने यज्ञानां होता विश्वेषां हितः देवेभिर्मानुषे जने (ऋग्वेद 6-16-1) Mr. भट्टाचार्य mentions that the मन्त्र can be recited in two different ways (a) by taking a pause at त्वमग्ने यज्ञानां or (b) by taking a pause at त्वमग्ने यज्ञानां होता In pronunciation (a), the word होता gets connected with the next word होता विश्वेषां In pronunciation (b), the word होता gets connected with the previous word यज्ञानां होता. In turn meanings of (a) and (b) become different.

9. Supplying what is wanting

  1. Mr. भट्टाचार्य gives an interesting quote of विष्णुधर्मोत्तर – प्रयोजनं संशयनिर्णयौ च | व्याख्याविशेषं गुरुलाघवं च | कृतव्युदासोऽकृतशासनं च | स वार्त्तिको धर्मगुणोऽष्टकश्च || Mr. भट्टाचार्य interprets the word गुरुलाघवं to be hinting at “the long and short of” a सूत्र. A सूत्र is always supposed to be स्वल्पाक्षरम्. But it is also supposed to be असंदिग्धम्. Actually if any statement, not only a सूत्रम् is असंदिग्धम् there should be no need for any commentaries. But there are !!
  2. वररुचि कात्यायन proposed many supplementary सूत्र-s known as वार्त्तिक-सूत्र-s
    1. When detailing the सूत्रार्थ, वृत्तिः may tend to be सोपस्कार (Ref कैय्याट in his प्रदीप 6’1’1) where उपस्कार means पूरणम् (Ref उद्योत 1’4’13)
    2. That वृत्ति may propose supplementary सूत्र-s i.e. be स-उपस्कार, is also endorsed vide सोपस्कारेषु सूत्रेषु वाक्यशेषः समर्थ्यते in stanza 3’14’467 by भर्तृहरि (in his वाक्यपदीय ?)
      1. “…Commenting on this stanza of भर्तृहरि, हेलाराज clearly showed the verbal character of a सूत्र to be इह सूत्रे वाक्यानां क्रियापदाश्रयणात् साध्याहारत्वम् अक्सीयते, लक्ष्यानुगुण्येन च लक्षणप्रणयनात् यथायथं लक्ष्यभेदानुसारेण क्रियापदम् अध्याहर्तव्यम्
    3. Also in 18-th अध्याय of पराशर-उपपुराण – सूत्रस्थं पदमादाय पदैः सूत्रानुसारिभिः स्वपदानि च वर्ण्यन्ते भाष्यं भाष्यविदो विदुः It comes to mind that पतञ्जलि introduced the term क्रियाविशेषणम् which matches with adverb-concept of English grammar. The word क्रियार्थायाम् in तुमुन्ण्वुलौ क्रियायां क्रियार्थायाम् (3’3’10) may be close to क्रियाविशेषणम् but not exactly the same.

10 Examples उदाहृतिः

  1. In further part of his article, Mr. भट्टाचार्य quotes that उदाहरण-s of वृत्ति-s were also called वार्त्त-s (प्रदीप 1’1’56) which is defined in उद्योत as वृत्त्युदाहरणानि.
  2. Mr. भट्टाचार्य gives an interesting quote of विष्णुधर्मोत्तर – प्रयोजनं संशयनिर्णयौ च | व्याख्याविशेषं गुरुलाघवं च | कृतव्युदासोऽकृतशासनं च | स वार्त्तिको धर्मगुणोऽष्टकश्च || Mr. भट्टाचार्य interprets the first word प्रयोजनं to mean type of usage. Type(s) of usage would become explained only by examples.
  3. When discussing मामात्मपरदेहेषु प्रद्विषन्तोऽभ्यसूयकाः (गीता 16’18) the example came to mind that हिरण्यकशिपु questioned whether नारायण exists in a lifeless परदेह as of a pillar (!) Lo ! नारायण did exist there and manifested as नृसिंह. This example also brings forth a meaning of the word देह as anything which is bounded by a shape/surface. And नारायण exists in all देह-s, i.e. in anything and everything, which is bounded by a shape/surface, howsoever micro or howsoever huge, living or lifeless.

11. Counterexamples प्रत्युदाहरणम्

  1. When composing commentaries on व्याकरणसूत्र-s, it was one of the essential duties of वृत्तिकार-s to afford उदाहरण and प्रत्युदाहरण also. The उदाहरण-s contained in all वृत्ति-s were called मूर्धाभिषिक्त (प्रदीप 1’1’50).

11. चर्चा – Discussion of भावार्थ, by delving deeper than शब्दार्थ-s e.g. शाङ्करभाष्य-s

  1. Mr. भट्टाचार्य mentions an interesting quote उक्तानुक्तदुरुक्तचिन्ताकारि वार्त्तिकम् from अध्याय 2 of काव्यमीमांसा by राजशेखर. Mr. भट्टाचार्य noted this phrase उक्तानुक्तदुरुक्तचिन्ता also in न्याय-वार्त्तिकतात्पर्यटीका by सुरेश्वर. Actually, in this phrase चिन्ता about अनुक्त and दुरुक्त seems to really prompt very interesting angle to make any study comprehensive.
    1. For example when studying सूत्रम् – तुमुन्ण्वुलौ क्रियायां क्रियार्थायाम् (पा. 3’3’10) I am intrigued why the word क्रियार्थायाम् should have क्रियार्था as स्त्रीलिङ्गम् प्रातिपदिकम्. On the suggestion of Mr. Nagaraj Paturi, it becomes interesting to read the सूत्रम् as तुमुन्ण्वुलौ क्रियायां, (सत्यम्) | (तथापि) क्रियार्थायाम् |
    2. Likewise in सूत्रम् – अर्थवदधातुरप्रत्ययः प्रातिपदिकम् (1’2’45) the first word is masculine whereas the second one neuter. I haven’t come across good explanation of the logic of this.
    3. Mr. भट्टाचार्य gives a quote of विष्णुधर्मोत्तर – प्रयोजनं संशयनिर्णयौ च | व्याख्याविशेषं गुरुलाघवं च | कृतव्युदासोऽकृतशासनं च | स वार्त्तिको धर्मगुणोऽष्टकश्च || The first word प्रयोजनम् has the meaning “purpose”. In the context of undertaking a study, achieving fulfillment of the purpose of the study would be a प्रयोजनम्. It comes to mind that वाद / चर्चा is said to be of two types, as far as the end-result is concerned – वादे वादे जायते कण्ठशोषः or वादे वादे जायते तत्त्वबोधः Of course प्रयोजनम् of any वाद / चर्चा should be तत्त्वबोधः.
      1. When discussing प्रयोजनम्, Mr. भट्टाचार्य also quotes a वार्त्तिकम् of कात्यायन – रक्षोहागमलघ्वसंदेहाः प्रयोजनम् It seems that this वार्त्तिकम् considers that प्रयोजनम् would dwell upon रक्ष-ऊह्-आगम-(लघु-असंदेह). Here (लघु-असंदेह) might mean “supplementing short-comings, if any”.

12. आक्षेपस्य समाधानम् – One finds quite some such discussion in शाङ्करभाष्य on केनोपनिषत्

  1. Mr. भट्टाचार्य gives an interesting quote of विष्णुधर्मोत्तर – प्रयोजनं संशयनिर्णयौ च | व्याख्याविशेषं गुरुलाघवं च | कृतव्युदासोऽकृतशासनं च | स वार्त्तिको धर्मगुणोऽष्टकश्च || Here the characteristics संशयनिर्णयौ seem to be same as आक्षेपस्य समाधानम्.
  2. Mr. भट्टाचार्य also quotes in a footnote तदाक्षिप्य वार्त्तिककारः समाधते (Page 267) from न्याय-वार्त्तिकतात्पर्यटीका by सुरेश्वर. Here आक्षिप्य समाधते can be understood to mean that आक्षेप-s may arise during one’s own deliberations. Their समाधानम् may also happen in course of time. My own experience about extracting quotes out of context, as narrated at (6a) can be an example of आक्षिप्य समाधते.
  3. As per आक्षेपसमाधानपरो ग्रंथः भाष्यम् (हरदत्त in पदमञ्जरी) आक्षेपस्य समाधानम् is an important feature of a भाष्यम्.

13. In (5e) above there is mention of काव्यमीमांसा by राजशेखर. Now काव्यमीमांसा would of course embrace studying the idiomatic aspect अलङ्कारशास्त्र of the काव्य. अलङ्कार-s are of course of two types – शब्दालङ्कार and अर्थालङ्कार.

  1. Study of शब्दालङ्कार-aspect would cover metrical aspect and also of such शब्दालङ्कार-s as अनुप्रास, यमक, etc.
  2. Study of अर्थालङ्कार-aspect – In Apte’s dictionary I get for अर्थालङ्कार “.. a figure of speech determined by and dependent on the sense, and not on sound (opp. शब्दालंकार). अलङ्कारशेखर of केशवमिश्र mentions (verse 29) fourteen types of अर्थालङ्कारs as follows:- उपमारूपकोत्प्रेक्षाः समासोक्तिरपह्नुतिः । समाहितं स्वभावश्च विरोधः सारदीपकौ ॥ सहोक्तिरन्यदेशत्वं विशेषोक्तिर्विभावना । एवं स्युरर्थालङ्काराश्चतुर्दश न चापरे ॥…”. Is श्लेष Pun as an important type of अर्थालङ्कार missed out in this श्लोक by केशवमिश्र ?
  3. Mr. भट्टाचार्य has given an interesting example of both शब्द the pronunciation and अर्थ the meaning become different by difference in styles of recitation. The example has been referred to earlier at (7a-ii), mentioning that त्वमग्ने यज्ञानां होता विश्वेषां हितः देवेभिर्मानुषे जने (ऋग्वेद 6-16-1) can be recited in two different ways and would lend different meanings.
    1. There is the सुभाषितम्, which underscores this – पथ्ये सति गदार्तस्य भेषजेन किं प्रयोजनम् | पथ्येऽसति गदार्तस्य भेषजेन किं प्रयोजनम् ||

On perusing through the article of Mr. भट्टाचार्य, I do not see any more points for this checklist.

However, before closing, comes to mind the श्लोक – तद्विद्धि प्रणिपातेन परिप्रश्नेन सेवया | उपदेक्ष्यन्ति ते ज्ञानम् ज्ञानिनस्तत्त्वदर्शिनः (गीता 4’34) It has been quoted earlier at (1b) above. But referring again to it is relevant, because this compilation is of a checklist for a comprehensive study. This श्लोक actually contains guidance on how to study or how to get to know anything तद्विद्धि. The steps recommended are

  • प्रणिपातेन – by प्र (प्रकृष्टम्) intensive नि (नितान्तम्) thorough पातनम् analysis
  • परिप्रश्नेन – by परि circumspect प्रश्न inquiry
  • सेवया – by verifying and validating, by putting it into service/practice, i.e. by Exercising with it, Experimenting with it, Experiencing it
  • उपदेक्ष्यन्ति ते ज्ञानम् ज्ञानिनस्तत्त्वदर्शिनः – by seeking guidance and peer-review from गुरु-s, i.e. from those who know and also have the skill of teaching.


Compiled below are quotes, books and authors referred to by Mr. भट्टाचार्य for his article.

  1. व्याख्यानात् प्रतिपत्तिर्न हि संदेहात् अलक्षणाम् (परिभाषेन्दुशेखरः by नागेशभट्ट)
  2. न केवलं चर्चापदानि व्याख्यानम् .. किंतर्हि उदाहरणं प्रत्युदाहरणं वाक्याध्याहार इत्येतत् समुदितं व्याख्यानं भवति – इति पतञ्जलिः पस्पशाह्निके
  3. उदाहृतिः पदकृतिः पदार्थानां विवेचनम् | तन्त्राणां त्रिविधा व्याख्या शिशूनां शीघ्रबोधिनी as per प्रयोगरत्नमाला व्याकरण by (?)
  4. पदच्छेदः पदार्थोक्तिर्विग्रहो वाक्ययोजना | आक्षेपस्य समाधानं व्याख्यानं पञ्चलक्षणम् – (Ref 18th अध्याय of पराशर-उपपुराणम्)
  5. अर्थस्य अप्रतीयमानस्य पर्यायाभिधानेन विभज्य प्रतिपादनं व्याख्या | शब्दस्यापि व्युत्पादनं व्याख्या | एवमेते द्वे व्याख्ये | तयोरर्थपरिज्ञानमेकस्याः कार्यं, शब्दपरिज्ञानमेकस्याः | (commentary by दुर्ग on 4th chapter of निरुक्त)
  6. कैय्याट’s प्रदीप 6’3’76 that पदच्छेद done by different वृत्तिकार-s may not be the same. From the reference such as कैय्याट’s प्रदीप 6’3’76 it seems प्रदीप is a commentary by कैय्याट on अष्टाध्यायी.
  7. सूत्रार्थप्रधानो ग्रन्थो वृत्तिः इति हरदत्तमिश्रः in पदमञ्जरी (पदमञ्जरी attributed to हरदत्तमिश्रः is an 11th-century commentary on the श्रीमद्वामनजयादित्यविरचिता काशिकावृत्तिः) काशिकावृत्तिः is itself a commentary on Pāṇini.
  8. सूत्राणां सकलसारविवरणं वृत्तिः from अध्याय 2 of काव्यमीमांसा by राजशेखर.
  9. वृत्तिकारास्तु अधिकाराणां प्रवृत्ति-निवृत्ती आचक्षते, by कैय्याट (Ref प्रदीप 7’4’24)

    9’1 वृत्तिः may tend to be सोपस्कार (Ref कैय्याट in his प्रदीप 6’1’1)

    9’2 उदाहरण-s contained in all वृत्ति-s were called मूर्धाभिषिक्त (प्रदीप 1’1’50)

  1. quote of विष्णुधर्मोत्तर – प्रयोजनं संशयनिर्णयौ च | व्याख्याविशेषं गुरुलाघवं च | कृतव्युदासोऽकृतशासनं च | स वार्त्तिको धर्मगुणोऽष्टकश्च ||
  2. उपस्कार means पूरणम् (Ref उद्योत 1’4’13) उद्योत (author ?) seems to be yet another commentary on अष्टाध्यायी
  3. सोपस्कारेषु सूत्रेषु वाक्यशेषः समर्थ्यते in stanza 3’14’467 by भर्तृहरि (in his वाक्यपदीय ?)
  4. इह सूत्रे वाक्यानां क्रियापदाश्रयणात् साध्याहारत्वम् अक्सीयते, लक्ष्यानुगुण्येन च लक्षणप्रणयनात् यथायथं लक्ष्यभेदानुसारेण क्रियापदम् अध्याहर्तव्यम् इति हेलाराजः commenting on stanza 3’14’467 by भर्तृहरि
  5. उक्तानुक्तदुरुक्तचिन्ताकारि वार्त्तिकम् from अध्याय 2 of काव्यमीमांसा by राजशेखर
  6. उक्तानुक्तदुरुक्तचिन्ता also in न्याय-वार्त्तिकतात्पर्यटीका by सुरेश्वर

     15’1 वार्त्तिककारः सूत्रतात्पर्यमाह (Page 266)

     15’2 तदाक्षिप्य वार्त्तिककारः समाधते (Page 267)

     15’3 तदेतद् भाष्यकारीयमुदाहरणं दूषयित्वा स्वकीयमुदाहरणमाह (Page 282)

     15’4 सूत्रव्याख्यानपरं वार्त्तिकम् (Page 352)

  1. वार्त्तिकम् of कात्यायन – रक्षोहागमलघ्वसंदेहाः प्रयोजनम्
  2. श्रीमद्वामनजयादित्यविरचिता काशिकावृत्तिः on (5’1’50) and (5’1’94)
  3. कैय्याट about महाभाष्यम् नैतदन्वाख्येयमधिकारा अनुवर्तन्ते also वार्त्तिककारेण नैतदन्वाख्येयं सर्वाधिकाराणाम् अन्वाख्यानप्रसङ्गात् at प्रदीप (7’4’21) –
  4. ऋक्सर्वानुक्रमणि considers त्वमग्ने यज्ञानां होता विश्वेषां हितः देवेभिर्मानुषे जने (ऋग्वेद 6-16-1) to be in वर्धमानगायत्रीछन्दस् (6+7+8 अक्षरपरिमाण) whereas निदानसूत्र considers it to be पिपीलिका-मध्या-छन्दस् (8+5+8 अक्षरपरिमाण)

शुभमस्तु !


नॄ → नरः → नारम् / नाराः → नारायणः / नारदः

Presently (Thursday Nov. 9, 2017) I am studying श्रीमद्भागवते द्वितीये स्कन्धे पञ्चमोऽध्यायः / Just deliberating on श्लोक-s 15 and 16 →

नारायणपरा वेदा देवा नारायणाङ्गजाः /

नारायणपरा लोका नारायणपरा मखाः //15//

नारायणपरो योगो नारायणपरं तपः /

नारायणपरं ज्ञानं नारायणपरा गतिः //16//

Since everything is नारायणपर, to understand this भावः of being नारायणपर, what is basically नारायण ? With this question, I started delving into the etymology of नारायण.

  1. Who is नारायणः ?
    1. Etymologically नारस्य अयनमिति नारायणम्  (षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः) just as रामस्य अयनमिति रामायणम्
      1. But here we have नारायणः, not नारायणम्
        1. For that, instead of षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः etymology, we can also put it as नारस्य अयनं यस्मात् सः नारायणः (पञ्चमी-बहुव्रीहिः) OR नारस्य अयनं यस्मिन्स नारायणः (सप्तमी-बहुव्रीहिः)
        2. Whether we take the तत्पुरुष-etymology or बहुव्रीहि-etymology, we have to understand what नार is.
  2. किमिति नारम् ?
    1. नरस्येदम्-अण् = नारम्
    2. नरस्य धर्मो नारम् /
    3. These explanations of नारम् provoke “Who is नरः ?”
  3. नरः [नॄ-नये-अच्] So नरः is from धातुः नॄ /
    1. नॄ+अच् →
      1. First of all अच् = अ Since by हलन्त्यम् (1-3-3) च् → इत् and by तस्य लोपः (1-3-9) च्-कारस्य लोपः / Hence अच् = अ only /
      2. नॄ+अच् = नॄ+अ = न् + अर् + अ = नर /
    2. धातुपाठे → नॄ । भ्वा० सेट् प० । नॄ(म्) न॒ये १.९२१ ॥ also नॄ । क्र्या० सेट् प० । नॄ न॒ये ९.३० ॥ Both as १.९२१ and ९.३०, its meaning is नये.
      1. In Apte’s dictionary नॄ 9 P. 1 To bring to. -2 To lead.
    3. Actually नरः is also प्रथमा विभक्ति, बहुवचनम् of a ऋ-कारान्तं प्रातिपदिकम् नृ.
      1. नृ [नी-ऋन् डिच्च; cf. Uṇ.2.11.] (Nom. sing. ना, gen. pl. नृणाम् or नॄणाम्) 1 A man, a person whether male or female; Ms.3.81;4.61;7.61; नॄन् प्रशंसत्यजस्रं यो घण्टाताडोरुणोदये 1.33. -2 Mankind. -3 A piece at chess. -4 The pin of a sun-dial. -5 A masculine word; संधिर्ना विग्रहो यानम् Ak. -6 A leader.
    4. नरः devoid of नारम् is साक्षात् पशुः पुच्छविषाणहीनः /
      1. The complete सुभाषितम् is साहित्यसंगीतकलाविहीनः साक्षात् पशुः पुच्छविषाणहीनः / तृणं न खादन्नपि जीवमानस्तद्भागधेयं परमं पशूनाम् //
      2. नरः merits to be called as नरः, only if a person has one or the other faculty from among literature, music or arts. Having any of these faculties is नारम्
  4. But I also got a quote – आपो नारा इति प्रोक्ता आपो वै नरसूनवः । ता यदस्यायनं पूर्वं तेन नारायणः स्मृतः ॥
    1. आपः नाराः /
    2. आपः नरसूनवः /
    3. There is some confusion here –
      1. नरसूनवः इति नाराः → आपः नाराः / So in the sequence of genesis आपः being नाराः are after  नरः. So, नरः first and नाराः i.e. आपः next.
      2. But आपः are, where नारायणः resides from time immemorial. The mention आपःअस्य पूर्वमयनम् also seems to suggest that only. Doesn’t that mean आपः precede नरः ?
      3. Also आपः are one of the five fundamental elements.
      4. It is also said that physiologically human body is 70% water.
      5. How then आपः नाराः (नरसूनवः) ?
    4. ता यदस्यायनं पूर्वं = ताः (आपः) यत् अस्य पूर्वमयनम्  /
      1. The word अस्य  also can mean नारायणस्य or नरस्य. But because there is no direct mention of नर, we have to take it as meaning नारायणस्य.
    5. Deliberating on the word स्मृतः, it comes to mind that, one can say,  स्मृतौ उक्तः इति स्मृतः !! Does that mean that नारायण is mentioned as such, more in स्मृति-s than in श्रुति-s ?
  5. Interestingly नारदः [नरस्य धर्मो नारं, तत् ददाति दा-क]
    1. नारदः is an adjective नारं ददातीति नारदः !
    2. नारदः is a compound word नार+द
      1. नारं ददातीति नारदः /
      2. दा-धातुतः क-प्रत्ययेन द-इति उपपदम् ददातीत्यर्थकम् /
    3. वाल्मीकि was a bandit, before he was initiated into तपश्चर्या by नारद. Basically  नारद means, one who imparts नारम्  
    4. A priest conducting a thread-ceremony is also नारद. Actually all teachers and precepts, who initiate a person into humane faculties such as साहित्य, संगीत, कला are नारद-s.
  6. As has been noted earlier, नारस्य अयनं यस्मात् सः नारायणः and now नारं ददातीति नारदः Putting these two thoughts together, we can say that a life is born in नर-form by the grace of नारायण, but he gets the faculties of नारम् when blessed by नारद-s.

शुभमस्तु !


To the meaning derived, that नारद means  preceptor, Shri. R. Y. देशपाण्डे of पुदुच्चेरी lends authenticity, “.. In the सावित्री-आख्यान in महाभारतम् by व्यास, we have the following phrase: भगवानाह नारदो देवसत्कृतः “Revered Narad, respected by the gods also”. “You are my preceptor and my god, देवश्च गुरुर्हि भगवान् मम” — says अश्वपति to him.

Newton’s Laws of Motion and कर्मचोदना

When walking in the park, if I would like to overtake someone walking ahead of me, I need to accelerate. This word “accelerate” brought to mind Newton’s Laws of Motion, wherein in the first law, there is the term “Force” and in the second, “acceleration” implicit in “rate of change of momentum”.

The first law states “Any body continues to be in its state of rest or of uniform motion, unless and until it is acted upon by an unbalanced external force.” What I started inquiring, was, whether there is any external force, when I accelerate my speed of walking. Obviously there is not. It comes to mind that Newton’s laws of motion are not valid for the living world. They are valid only for the non-living world. 

In the living world, actions happen by internal motivation, not necessarily by only an external force. I do not know, how Sir Jagdishchandra Basu established that there is life in plants. My hypothesis would be that, wherever actions happen by internal motivation, there is life. A bud becoming a flower is an action of internal motivation. Or even more simply, a blade of grass spouting out from some seed in the soil is an action of internal motivation. 

Comes to mind an interesting सुभाषितम् –

व्यतिषजति पदार्थानान्तरः कोऽपि हेतुः ।

न खलु बहिरुपाधीन् प्रीतयः संश्रयन्ते ।

विकसति हि  पतंगस्योदये पुण्डरीकम् ।

द्रवति च हिमरश्मावुद्गते चन्द्रकान्तः ।। 

Study of this सुभाषितम् can be read at https://slabhyankar.wordpress.com/2010/07/07/learning-sanskrit-by-fresh-approach-%E2%80%93lesson-23/  Two phrases in the सुभाषितम्, कोऽपि आन्तरः हेतुः “some internal motivation” and प्रीतयः बहिरुपाधीन् न संश्रयन्ते खलु “affections are not interdependent on external appeals” appeal to be so significant and relevant ! 

  • Howsoever ugly a child may be, it is “a darling baby” for its mother and gets the most ardent love from her.
  • It is more wonderful to think of how a chic of a bird gets the urge to take to flight.
    • There is a charming Hindi poem by हरिवंशराय बच्चन about a chic of a bird asking its mother माँ क्या मुझको उड़ना आया ? Mom, am I ready to fly ? नहीं चुरुंगन तू भरमाया।। No dear you are merely in flights of fancy ! But in the last stanza मैं नीले अज्ञात गगनकी, सुनता हूँ अनिवार पुकार। कोई अंदरसे कहता है, उड़ जा उड़ता जा परमार। This blue unknown expanse of the sky is whistling into my ears. I am getting an ardent call from someone inside me, saying, “Fly ! Keep flying, transcending the unknown !! Note, कोई अंदरसे कहता है “call from someone inside me”

The hypothesis then becomes, that, excitements, causing actions to happen, are seemingly different in the living world and non-living world. About the excitements causing actions in the living world, there is also ज्ञानं ज्ञेयं परिज्ञाता त्रिविधा कर्मचोदना (गीता १८’१८) Here, कर्मचोदना the interrelation between excitements and actions is said to be threefold.

Can we say that,

  • a bud of lotus पुण्डरीकम् sensing the day-break पतंगस्योदये is ज्ञानम्,
    • There is excitement and action in every ज्ञानम्, every sensing.
  • the bud itself is परिज्ञाता and
  • the bud blooming open विकसति हि is ज्ञेयम् ?

The simile पतंगस्योदये पुण्डरीकम् विकसति हि seems to become a good explanatory example of ज्ञानं ज्ञेयं परिज्ञाता त्रिविधा कर्मचोदना. 

Just for some play on words, I get to think that instincts and excitements are internal, but excitation is external. In the mention of “external unbalanced force” in Newton’s first law of motion, the word “external” seems superfluous.  Instincts and excitements, though internal are also “unbalanced forces”, rather, “unbalancing forces”. The philosophical advocacy is to train the mind to acquire such steadfastness, that its stability will stay unaffected in spite of all unbalancing forces whatever.

आपूर्यमाणमचलप्रतिष्ठम् ।

समुद्रमापः प्रविशन्ति यद्वत् ।

तद्वत् कामा यं प्रविशन्ति सर्वे ।

स शान्तिमाप्नोति न कामकामी ।। (गीता २’७२)

Meaning, “Just as waters keep flowing into the sea, but the inflows (from rivers) make no difference to the sea, because it is always in an undisturbable state, in the same way, for one, who has attained an undisturbable state, wishes may enter his mind, but would make no difference to him.” Study of this verse can be read at https://study1geetaa2sanskrit.wordpress.com/2016/01/13/studying-gita-and-sanskrit-together-chapter-2-verses-70-to-72/ 

In mechanics there is the term “Inertia”. Newton’s third law of motion says “Action and reaction are equal and opposite”. It is inertia, which defeats the law. If inertia is great, there is no reaction. अचलप्रतिष्ठम् मनः is mind with such inertia, that it remains steadfast against all disturbances, internal or external. Only one with such mind can be at real peace स शान्तिमाप्नोति. For real peace, disprove all Newton’s Laws of Motion !

शुभमस्तु !


Computers and Sanskrit

Computers and Sanskrit


1-1 This compilation was motivated by a note by Dr. Baldevanand Sagar

Use of Sanskrit in Computer Programming

-Dr. Baldevanand Sagar

In July 1987, Forbes magazine published news which surprised the Sanskrit scholars and orientalists. This news filled the hearts of all those who love and study Sanskrit with great joy and enthusiasm as it opened the doors to new fascinating world of Sanskrit studies.

Sanskrit language is extremely rich, powerful and expressive medium. Its potentialities are gradually being appreciated all over the world and its application is being extended in different fields.

To mention a few Indian Institute of Information Technology – IIIT Hyderabad is working on a project called NLP meaning by- Natural Language Processing. The goal of NLP is to build computational methods of national language for its analysis and generation. Similar work is going on at Cdac, Bangalore. The project is called natural language understanding that’s NLU.

Few days back I read a report of a NASA scientist, published in a daily newspaper that NASA, the most advanced research center in the world for cutting edge technology, has discovered that Sanskrit, the world’s oldest spiritual and scientific language is the only unambiguous spoken language on the planet.

Considering Sanskrit status as a spiritual language, a further implication of this discovery is that the age old dichotomy between religion and science is an entirely unjustified one.

It is also relevant to note that in the last decade physicists have begun to comment on the striking similarities between their own discoveries and the discoveries made thousands of years ago in India.

Now, one can easily ask, why has Sanskrit endured. Simple answer for this will be that Sanskrit fundamentally generates clarity and inspiration and the clarity and brilliance of creating expression such as the world has rarely seen.

Another hope for the return of Sanskrit lies in computers. Sanskrit and computers are a perfect fit. The precision play of Sanskrit with computer tools will awaken the capacity in human beings to utilize their innate higher mental faculty with a momentum that would inevitably transform the world.

According to Rick Briggs, a well known researcher at NASA and who has claimed about Sanskrit as computer–language, “.. Sanskrit is such a language in which a message can be sent by the computer in the least number of words. ..”

The scientists believe that Sanskrit is also helpful in speech therapy besides helping in mathematics and science. It also improves concentration. The alphabets used in the language are well developed and scientific and their correct pronunciation improves the tone of speech. It encourages imagination and improves memory retention also.

We can implement Sanskrit words in coding, like coding a musical instrument. The dual case is a unique feature in Sanskrit. The dual case is absent in many languages, this creates confusion while processing duals and plurals ; implementation of Sanskrit prevents this.

As it is already said – the pronunciation and accent of Sanskrit language is based on physics and it is the simplest grammar of the world. So, by implementing Sanskrit we can create effective natural language processor.

As linguists say – “Sanskrit the world’s ancient language has got a wealthy grammar. Because of this well developed and systematic grammar; Sanskrit is the most suitable one for giving an advance artificial intelligence for computers.

All modern languages have etymological roots in classical languages and some philologists say that all Indo-European languages are rooted in Sanskrit, but here we are talking about the computer programming and Sanskrit.

Words in Sanskrit are instances of predefined classes, a concept, which drives object oriented programming , that’s “OOP” today.

For example, in English ‘cow’ is just a sound assigned to mean a particular animal. But if we drill down the word ‘GAU’ Sanskrit word for cow, we arrive at a broad class ‘gam’ which means ‘to move’. From there derive words like ‘gamanam’ ‘gatih’ etc, which are variations of ‘movement’.

All words have this OOP-approach, except that defined classes in Sanskrit are so exhaustive that they cover the material and abstract – indeed cosmic experiences known to man. So in Sanskrit the connection is more than etymological.

It was Maharshi Panini who formalized Sanskrit grammar and usage about many years ago. No new ‘classes’ have needed to be added to it since then. J.J.O’Connor and E.F.Robertson say- “Maharshi Panini should be thought of as the forerunner of the modern formal language theory used to specify computer language”. In their well known article, these two computer-scientists quote: “Sanskrit’s potential for scientific use was greatly enhanced as a result of the through systemization of its grammar by Panini. On the basis of just under 4000 Sutras (rules expressed as aphorism) he built virtually the whole structure of the Sanskrit language, whose general ‘shape’ hardly changed for the next two thousand years”.

According to the historians and scholars- ‘The most ancient language, Sanskrit is such a unique language that provides the root meaning of its every word. For instance, in the word ‘Pitra’ the meaning of the root ‘pa’ lies inherent. But, other languages do not possess this caliber. For instance, we cannot decipher the meaning of’ father’ and ‘pedaer’ from their respective root words in English and Persian’.

Thus, it gets clear that it is this Vedic language- Sanskrit – that taught linguistic skills to the whole world enabling people to speak to each other. It provided us with the very means to communicate us, in fact to not only us but also the computers.

Since programming languages are meant for computers to understand and the space for ambiguity is at best extremely limited, the grammar describing these languages are extremely clear and well – defined in their structure. This is where computer scientists have been working on methods to remove ambiguity from the formulation of rules for communication. A grammar is described as a formal definition of the syntactic structure of a language, usually given in terms of production rules which specify the order of constituents, such as words or phrases and their sub-constituents in a sentence.

In the case of programming language of late, there is a growing opinion in the computer science community that the grammar of the Sanskrit language was defined in an extremely unambiguous and formal manner, almost akin to the definition style of most modern programming languages.

Grammar and philosophy of Sanskrit language continues to impress computer scientists and linguists alike with its perfection and long lasting relevance.

In brief, we can say that there is at least one language, Sanskrit which for the duration of almost 2500 years was a living spoken language with a considerable literary of its own. Besides works of literature value, there was a long philosophical and grammatical tradition that has continued to exist with undiminished vigor until the present century. Among the accomplishments of the grammarians can be reckoned a method for paraphrasing Sanskrit in a manner that is identical not only in essence but in form with current work in artificial intelligence.

In my concluding remarks of this radio – talk, I would like to say that America is creating 6th and 7th generation supercomputers, based on the Sanskrit language to their maximum extent. Project’s deadline is 2025 for the 6th generation and 2034 for 7th generation. After this there will be a language revolution all over the world to learn Sanskrit.


In this section I am compiling an interaction I have had with my son Rahul, who has been in the thick of Computer-Technology for more than 24 years now.

(2-1) I wrote to him on Friday, 11th September 2015 –

In respect of the talk about Sanskrit being THE futuristic language for computers, just a thought came to my mind that processors in computers basically run by the logic circuits, which are primarily binary codes.

I want to know from you whether this understanding of mine is correct.

If this is correct, binary code is not specific to any language at all.

My understanding is that it is the COMPILERS, which translate codes written in C++ or whichever computer language to binary.

So, if it is to be proved that Sanskrit would be the most efficient language for computers, one needs to prove that compilers to translate codes in Sanskrit to machine language or binary code will be the most efficient compilers.

I also understand that Sanskrit will be efficient, especially for Artificial Intelligence, because Intelligence is inherent to Sanskrit.

I also understand that computers of the future, may be not too distant a future, will work with phonetic instructions, instead of typed instructions. That will be another strong argument in favor of Sanskrit, because no language can compete with Sanskrit as far as phonetic instructions are concerned. In fact Vedas and all Sanskrit heritage has survived all upheavals – political, societal, wars and strifes – thanks mainly to phonetic instructions, the mainstay of all गुरु-शिष्य परंपरा

I am of course overwhelmed by the fast strides in computer technology, especially the touch screens of smartphones.

It is recognized even in गीता, that the sensory organs or the five senses शब्द, रूप, रस, गन्ध, स्पर्श are the channels for knowledge, hence called as ज्ञानेन्द्रिय-s. The touch screens are just some smartness of the sense of touch स्पर्शज्ञान improvisation over striking keys, which also employed the sense of touch only. But the way one can magnify and reduce images on smartphones and zap the pages on Kindles is all very smart.

Is it true that they have computers having password protection by retina of the user ? That would mean use of रूपज्ञान.

Phonetic instructions would mean शब्दज्ञान. Considering the flow of my thoughts, it seems that phonetic instructions are very much within the realm of possibility. Already there are Karaoke, which compare the sound being INPUT with the sound recorded in the memory of Karaoke devices.

It comes to mind that all computers should in the first place, become Karaoke kind of devices. The technology of these devices should then be taken further to process Programming instructions from phonetic inputs.

Is it not impressive that the technology has so rapidly progressed from स्पर्शज्ञान to now include शब्दज्ञान and may be also रूपज्ञान.

Looks like the situation is becoming right and ripe for Sanskrit to take charge.

Am I on the right track ?

(2-2) Rahul replied on Sunday 27th September 2015 –

The circuits themselves are not binary codes. The circuits connect various processing units inside the computer – the CPU, memory, storage, I/O devices, etc. The CPU has its own instruction set which is called machine language. It is the lowest level instruction set inside the computer and is represented using binary codes. Higher level applications that are written in relatively more user-friendly syntax languages such as C/C++/Java are compiled to create object code that is executable. The compiler is a program that creates an executable version of the application code. This object code is essentially the set of instructions that the processor understands as machine language or binary code. So overall your understanding is correct.

I don’t think that the goal is necessarily to create more efficient compilers. The reason to use Sanskrit as a programming language is to make it “easier” to program, since Sanskrit has a well defined grammatical construct that is not ambiguous, unlike English.  Since the rules are well defined and can be applied uniformly and consistently, the claim is that it should be “easier” to communicate with computers using a natural language like Sanskrit, instead of having “programming languages”. If English had a more defined and consistent structure, imagine that everybody could be a computer programmer, the pace of innovation would be very high because anybody could communicate naturally and write applications that interacted with computers without needing to learn separate languages. But unfortunately that is not the case, and only a very small percentage of population who is able to learn programming languages can create applications.

The claim that Sanskrit can be a good candidate for a programming language was first made in a paper by a NASA scientist in 1985. It was published in the Artificial Intelligence magazine. I have attached that paper here. I have not read it fully but I skimmed through it.

Voice commands are getting more and more sophisticated. Most smartphones now have built-in “assistants”. Apple’s assistant is called Siri. You can communicate with the phone in any language. Siri supports Mandarin, Cantonese, French, German, Korean, Spanish, Italian, Japanese, American, UK and Australian English, Russian, Danish, Portuguese, Dutch, Turkish, Thai, Swedish. You can ask questions to Siri such as “What is tomorrow’s weather forecast?”, or “What is the time now in Mumbai?” and Siri responds with information without delay. Right now the voice commands are for  search queries, or some basic system commands such as “Send a text message to Shilpa My flight just landed”.

For Sanskrit to be used as a computer language, we can look at it in two ways:

  1. Sanskrit as an input language
  2. Sanskrit as an interpreted language

For Sanskrit as an input language, the challenge is that computers are getting much smarter by the day to accept inputs in currently widely spoken languages, however deficient they may be. The other challenge is the number of people who know Sanskrit.

For Sanskrit as an interpreted language, should computers internally convert voice/touch/application inputs into Sanskrit? Should Sanskrit become the machine language? Should future processors be based on Sanskrit instead of having their own instruction sets, which are typically a small set? Does that create much more optimized and capable processors and hence computers? I think whoever is conducting any research into this should look into this aspect of using Sanskrit as a machine language instead of a programming language.

In future scenarios where we may have special purpose robots that “learn” from the environment and become smarter, the area of exploration may be whether computers that know Sanskrit can evolve themselves to be smarter computers. If the IBM Deep Blue computer that defeated Garry Kasparov knew Sanskrit as a language for its own “thinking”, could it have been a smaller computer, could it have used less electricity, could it have used less circuitry, etc. Those are the types of questions that need to be asked in connection with Sanskrit as a computer language.

You are very much on the right track.

Here is a good video that you would enjoy: http://www.ted.com/talks/ajit_narayanan_a_word_game_to_communicate_in_any_language?language=en

Rahul had appended the article “Knowledge Representation in Sanskrit and Artificial Intelligence” by Mr. Rick Briggs from RIACS, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffet Field, California 94305. The article seems to be available for free download as PDF at http://www.aaai.org/ojs/index.php/aimagazine/article/view/466.

(2-2) My rejoinder on Tuesday 29th September 2015 –

I am not convinced that grammatical constructs in Sanskrit would make programming better, than the English language, which is used in programming. Actually the programming codes do not use any such language where grammar of the language would make a significant contribution. Substantially the programming codes are built using some basic logic-routines such as

  • for loops, with their variants such as do while loops, do until loops
  • ‘if-then’ routines of conditional execution of instructions
  • equations using defined variables, which, of course, do not use grammar
  • invoking subroutines

The codes became smarter starting with number of pixels across the screen becoming almost infinite, especially with scrollable screens, number of colors also became large number and recording of sound could also be uploaded into the RAM if not in the BIOS.

I think Object Oriented Programming came in almost as a revolution in the basic concept of programming. It is my guess that this concept of Object Oriented Programming was triggered by the Graphics packages like AUTOCAD, where every line or arc is essentially an object. I would also venture to guess that the PageMaker of Adobe also had this concept of Object Oriented Programming, treating page as comprising definable and re-definable objects. If I know it right, PageMaker has been around for more than two decades.

It comes to mind that cartoon films also have been around on computers for quite some time now..

I am not sure that Sanskrit can make these tasks simpler or more interesting than what has been already achieved by current stage of programming.

I am back to my line of thinking that Sanskrit would be good for computers by its strengths, important among which, according to me are

  • its very well-defined phonetics. Phonetics combined with freedom from syntax in Sanskrit become such a strong combination that just the manner of pronunciation can make a sentence simple affirmative or interrogative or exclamatory or rhetoric or slanted negative
  • That builds in inherent intelligence and in turn Sanskrit should be good for Artificial Intelligence

You have made good mention of “Assistants” as Siri of Apple.

Last week I was in Borivali at Santosh’s place for Ganapati and had an interesting dialog with Varun. He mentioned to me that Google has an option of phonetic input. I did not know of it or had not noticed it. When I opened Google, back home, I did notice that there is a mike-icon right beside the Search bar.

If Siri is already friendly with so many languages, I am appalled that Sanskrit does not find a mention in your list. I am marking a Cc to Mr. विश्वास-वासुकिजः, who, if my impression is correct, works with Google and has been thickly involved with the “Input Tool” the transcription tool of Google. I would like to have his response on this broad topic of Use of Sanskrit as a Computer language.

(2-3) Mr. विश्वास-वासुकिजः responded very promptly and crisply, saying, “ broadly agree with you.”


Further thinking can branch off in many, many different directions !

(3-1) Title of Mr. Briggs’ article “Knowledge Representation in Sanskrit and Artificial Intelligence” itself provokes questions such as –

  1. What is knowledge ?
  2. What is intelligence ?
  3. How and to what degree can intelligence be made artificial ?
  4. What are strengths of Sanskrit, which can help to make intelligence artificial, maybe to much higher degree than by any other language ?

(3-2) If just the manner of pronunciation can make a sentence simple affirmative or interrogative or exclamatory or rhetoric or slanted negative, how can the manner of pronunciation or intonation be included in the translation-procedures or programs of translating a sentence in one language into another language ?

  • (3-2-1) It is realized in Sanskrit grammar that basic vowels can be pronounced in 18 ways – अनुनासिक, अननुनासिक, then ह्रस्व, दीर्घ्, प्लुत and उदात्त, अनुदात्त, स्वरित
  • (3-2-2) Some of the pronunciations of basic vowels, i.e. those single-vowel sounds alone are meaningful. Those meanings of those sounds seem to be universal, i.e. identical in all languages. For example
    • (3-2-2-1) the sound of vowel इ, pronounced as अननुनासिक, प्लुत, उदात्त is a reaction, rather a reflex exclamation of rejection. Example of such reflex exclamation of rejection is, when you get to see an innocent child suddenly thump its hand in something dirty.
    • (3-2-2-2) The sound of vowel अ, pronounced as अनुनासिक, ह्रस्व, अनुदात्त becomes an interjection, by an inattentive person, who realizes that something was being said or discussed and he was not listening. So by such sound of अ, he wants to convey, “Excuse me, I was not listening.”
    • (3-2-2-3) I would love to include audio clips of these sounds, which will readily explain what sounds I have in mind when I say –
      • the sound of vowel इ, pronounced as अननुनासिक, प्लुत, उदात्त
      • The sound of vowel अ, pronounced as अनुनासिक, ह्रस्व, अनुदात्त

(3-3) Since Mr. Briggs’ article appeared in 1985, by now in 2015, a long period of 30 years has elapsed. Why has not a single program in Sanskrit come up, in all such long period of time, at least to demonstrate if not to validate the statements made in his article or by anybody else ? Sanskritists themselves seem to be happy and rejoicing that somebody, somewhere has analysed and applauded strengths of Sanskrit, especially for use in computers.

(3-4) Computers are basically microprocessor-based devices, supplemented with memory-storage and retrieval. Computers have monitors or display-devices where one gets to see the results being output. Computers are also capable of reproducing sounds. It has been quite a long time, that there have been programs on computers to learn playing harmonium.

It comes to mind that Robots are also microprocessor-based devices, supplemented with memory-storage and retrieval and where one gets to see the results by actions executed by the Robot.

Will it not be interesting if there was to be a competition between two Robots, of which one responds to instructions in English and another responding to instructions in Sanskrit ?

Considering what all good things are acknowledged about Sanskrit, a Robot executing instructions in Sanskrit should win !!

(3-5) महर्षि पाणिनि’s अष्टाध्यायी is a computer program by itself. It is a program, because there is some logical sequence among the सूत्र-s. The logical sequence has inbuilt processing प्रक्रिया-s to derive any word in any Sanskrit sentence. By applying the प्रक्रिया-s one can also check correctness of any word in any Sanskrit sentence. That has sealed Sanskrit from any ingress of incorrectness. If anyone composes a Sanskrit sentence with inaccuracies, we can say that it may sound like being in Sanskrit, but cannot be called a Sanskrit composition. Using engineering terminology, we can say that Sanskrit has zero tolerance for inaccuracies.

If this is to be taken as a strong point in favor of Sanskrit, when thinking of Sanskrit as a language for computer-programming, this strength is related to the grammar of Sanskrit. But it has been discussed in (2-3) that Computer programs do not benefit from grammatical strength, because the programs need very little grammatical strength.

Also, even if the grammar of Sanskrit has zero tolerance for inaccuracies, so even if one should always expect the result to be very accurate, the प्रक्रिया-s are not simple. For example, once somebody had asked a question about the derivation of the word अकुर्वत in the very first श्लोक in the very first अध्याय in गीता. The derivation provided by Dr. Nityanand Mishra was as follows –

विवक्षा (Option 1) = कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफलेऽनद्यतनभूते प्रथमपुरुष एकवचनम्

कृ → 3-4-69 लः कर्मणि च भावे चाकर्मकेभ्यः → 3-2-111 अनद्यतने लङ् → कृ + लङ्→ 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ्, 1-4-101 तिङस्त्रीणि त्रीणि प्रथममध्यमोत्तमाः, 1-4-102 तान्येकवचनद्विवचनबहुवचनान्येकशः → 1-3-72 स्वरितञितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले → आत्मनेपदप्राप्तिः → 1-4-100 तङानावात्मनेपदम् → कृ + त → 3-1-79 तनादिकृञ्भ्य उः →   कृ उ त →   3-4-114 आर्धधातुकं शेषः →   “उ” इत्यस्यार्धधातुकत्वम् →   7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः →   गुणः →   1-1-2 अदेङगुणः →   1-1-50 स्थानेऽन्तरतमः →   अगुणः →   क् अ उ त →   1-1-51 उरण् रपरः →   रपरत्वम् →   क् अर् उ त →   करु त →   3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम् →   “त” इत्यस्य सार्वधातुकत्वम् →   6-4-110 अत उत्सार्वधातुके →   क् उ रु त →   कुरु त →   कुरुत →   6-4-71 लुङ्लङ्लृङ्क्ष्वडुदात्तः →   अडागमः →   1-1-46 आद्यन्तौ टकितौ →   आद्यागमः →   अट् कुरुत →   1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् →   टकारस्येत्संज्ञा →   1-3-9 तस्य लोपः →   अ कुरुत →   अकुरुत

विवक्षा (Option 2) = कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफलेऽनद्यतनभूते प्रथमपुरुषे बहुवचनम्

कृ →   3-4-69 लः कर्मणि च भावे चाकर्मकेभ्यः →   3-2-111 अनद्यतने लङ् →   कृ + लङ् →   3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्ताताञ्झथासाथान्ध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ्, 1-4-101 तिङस्त्रीणि त्रीणि प्रथममध्यमोत्तमाः, 1-4-102 तान्येकवचनद्विवचनबहुवचनान्येकशः →   1-3-72 स्वरितञितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले →   आत्मनेपदप्राप्तिः →   1-4-100 तङानावात्मनेपदम् →   कृ + झ →   3-1-79 तनादिकृञ्भ्य उः →   कृ उ झ →   3-4-114 आर्धधातुकं शेषः →   “उ” इत्यस्यार्धधातुकत्वम् →   7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः →   गुणः →   1-1-2 अदेङगुणः →   1-1-50 स्थानेऽन्तरतमः →   अगुणः →   क् अ उ झ →   1-1-51 उरण् रपरः →   रपरत्वम् →   क् अर् उ झ →   करु झ →   3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम् →   “झ” इत्यस्य सार्वधातुकत्वम् →   6-4-110 अत उत्सार्वधातुके →   क् उ रु झ →   कुरु झ →   7-1-5 आत्मनेपदेष्वनतः →   कुरु अत् अ →   कुरु अत →   6-1-77 इको यणचि →   1-1-50 स्थानेऽन्तरतमः →   कुर्व् अत →   कुर्वत →   6-4-71 लुङ्लङ्लृङ्क्ष्वडुदात्तः →   अडागमः →   1-1-46 आद्यन्तौ टकितौ →   आद्यागमः →   अट् कुर्वत →   1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् →   टकारस्येत्संज्ञा →   1-3-9 तस्य लोपः →   अ कुर्वत →   अकुर्वत

As can be seen, the derivational analysis led to two different results अकुरुत and अकुर्वत. Actually the विवक्षा-s follows common path

  • from कृ →   3-4-69 लः कर्मणि च भावे चाकर्मकेभ्यः →   3-2-111 अनद्यतने लङ् →   कृ + लङ् →   3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्ताताञ्झथासाथान्ध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ्, 1-4-101 तिङस्त्रीणि त्रीणि प्रथममध्यमोत्तमाः, 1-4-102 तान्येकवचनद्विवचनबहुवचनान्येकशः →   1-3-72 स्वरितञितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले →   आत्मनेपदप्राप्तिः →   1-4-100 तङानावात्मनेपदम् →   कृ + झ →   3-1-79 तनादिकृञ्भ्य उः →   कृ उ झ →   3-4-114 आर्धधातुकं शेषः →   “उ” इत्यस्यार्धधातुकत्वम् →   7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः →   गुणः →   1-1-2 अदेङगुणः →   1-1-50 स्थानेऽन्तरतमः →   अगुणः →   क् अ उ झ →   1-1-51 उरण् रपरः →   रपरत्वम् →   क् अर् उ झ →   करु झ →   3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम् →   “झ” इत्यस्य सार्वधातुकत्वम् →   6-4-110 अत उत्सार्वधातुके →   क् उ रु झ →   कुरु झ →  
  • From there, in Option 1 it proceeds as 6-4-71 लुङ्लङ्लृङ्क्ष्वडुदात्तः →   अडागमः →   1-1-46 आद्यन्तौ टकितौ →   आद्यागमः →   अट् कुरुत →   1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् →   टकारस्येत्संज्ञा →   1-3-9 तस्य लोपः →   अ कुरुत →   अकुरुत
  • In Option 2  it proceeds as 7-1-5 आत्मनेपदेष्वनतः →   कुरु अत् अ →   कुरु अत →   6-1-77 इको यणचि →   1-1-50 स्थानेऽन्तरतमः →   कुर् व् अत →   कुर्वत →   6-4-71 लुङ्लङ्लृङ्क्ष्वडुदात्तः →   अडागमः →   1-1-46 आद्यन्तौ टकितौ →   आद्यागमः →   अट् कुर्वत →   1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् →   टकारस्येत्संज्ञा →   1-3-9 तस्य लोपः →   अ कुर्वत →   अकुर्वत
  • Let me confess that I had not gone in detail, into the derivation provided by Dr. Nityanand Mishra and hence had not noted that one gets two different results अकुरुत and अकुर्वत. The two different results are to be taken not as only one being correct and the other wrong, but as both results being correct and being options for each other.
  • This may sound a jugglery in the light of previous statement that grammar of Sanskrit has zero tolerance for inaccuracies.
  • It can be noticed that the derivation involves ‘n’ number of steps and jumps back and forth from chapter 3 to chapter 7 to chapter 1 to chapter 3 to chapter 6 in the portion – 3-4-114 आर्धधातुकं शेषः →   “उ” इत्यस्यार्धधातुकत्वम् →   7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः →   गुणः →   1-1-2 अदेङगुणः →   1-1-50 स्थानेऽन्तरतमः →   अगुणः →   क् अ उ झ →   1-1-51 उरण् रपरः →   रपरत्वम् →   क् अर् उ झ →   करु झ →   3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम् →   “झ” इत्यस्य सार्वधातुकत्वम् →   6-4-110 अत उत्सार्वधातुके →   क् उ रु झ →   कुरु झ →
  • Though there is jumping back and forth, of course there is some logic. Since there is logic अष्टाध्यायी is certainly a computer program by itself. I am yearning to see presentation of अष्टाध्यायी in the same style as we see computer programs in C++ or any other computer language.
  • Actually it is almost an unwritten rule that software developers should document the logic either by including ‘un-executable statements or explanations’ right in the code itself or in a manual. But my own experience is that any code does not get firmed up in one go. When one takes a trial run of the code, bugs do crop up. The code gets firmed up only after debugging all the bugs. One is left to wonder whether पाणिनि had to do any such debugging before he firmed up his अष्टाध्यायी, containing as many as 4000 aphorisms सूत्र-s, hence a 4000-statements long code !
  • Maybe, व्याकरणमहाभाष्यम् by पातञ्जलिमुनिः is the ‘documentation’ of अष्टाध्यायी !

(3-6) Yesterday (2nd October 2015) I had a discussion on this subject of Computers and Sanskrit with Mr. Keny, who works with Oracle in Mumbai. It transpired that

  • Robots may not be a good example of AI. Responses of Robots would not be involving ‘decision-making’. Intelligence is in decision-making, especially when one has to choose among options.
  • If IBM’s Deep Blue could defeat Garry Kasporov, as mentioned by Rahul, such computer has to have the intelligence to choose among options. In playing chess, choosing among options involves lot of forward thinking.

(3-7) I spend lot of time (I can admit it to be a waste of time) playing the card-game of ‘Hearts’, available online at http://www.hearts-cardgame.com/

  • Playing it on the computer became interesting and addictive, basically because it is a one-against-three challenge. Yet I have had a good win-percentage.
  • But now I have it on my tablet also. My win-percentage on the tablet is pathetic. It only means that the AI in the tablet is much higher than in the online version.
  • Would it be that if the program be coded using intelligence of Sanskrit, my win-percentage will become zero ? I would not mind, if it would yet help me to upgrade my own intelligence ! For that, not just the executable program, but the code and documentation will have to be available.

शुभमस्तु !


Value-Education – Part 2

Value-Education – Part 2

मूल्याधिष्ठितशिक्षणम् – द्वितीयोऽध्यायः

  1. I had presented some thoughts on Value Education earlier, mentioning “.. Since Universal and eternal values is the important essence of संस्कृत the language and संस्कृति cultural richness, inherent to it, it becomes a point to ponder upon, whether, education, if conducted through courses, syllabi and textbooks compiled in संस्कृत and based on संस्कृत texts will become values-based education. ..”
  1. To take the thoughts further, I get to recall a phrase शुचौ देशे in गीता २-११. The phrase may be translated to mean a sacrosanct site or place or location. This would prompt an enquiry into what a sacrosanct site or place or location is. Here the word देश should be interpreted to mean not just the place or site or location, but all the environmental surrounding there. So,  शुचौ देशे connotes good and conducive environment and in turn understanding the environment and caring for it.
  1. There are शान्तिमन्त्र-s to both begin and close a ritual.
  • One such शान्तिमन्त्र says ॐ द्यौ: शान्तिरन्तरिक्ष शान्ति: | पृथिवी शान्तिराप: शान्तिरोषधय: शान्ति:। वनस्पतय: शान्तिर्विश्वे देवा: शान्तिर्ब्रह्म शान्ति: सर्वँ शान्ति:, शान्तिरेव शान्ति: सा मा शान्तिरेधि ॥ ॐ शान्ति: शान्ति: शान्ति: ॥
  • Another शान्तिमन्त्र of पुरुषसूक्तम् is ॐ तच्छं योरावृणीमहे | गातुं यज्ञाय | गातुं यज्ञपतये | दैवी स्वस्तिरस्तु नः | स्वस्तिर्मानुषेभ्यः | ऊर्ध्वं जिगातु भेषजम् | शं नो अस्तु द्विपदे | शं चतुष्पदे || ॐ शान्ति: शान्ति: शान्ति: ॥
  • The शान्तिमन्त्र-s are sublime. They are sublime also because they evidence care for the environment and also for all living beings.
  • Another famous शान्तिमन्त्र is a prayer ॐ सह नाववतु । सह नौ भुनक्तु । सह वीर्यं करवावहै । तेजस्विनावधीतमस्तु मा विद्विषावहै ॥ ॐ शान्तिः शान्तिः शान्तिः ॥ This शान्तिमन्त्र prays for
    • तेजस्विनावधीतमस्तु May our learning be brilliant and also
    • मा विद्विषावहै May we never have any rancour
  • The शान्तिमन्त्र-s are sublime. But more importantly they have Value-Education inherent in them.
  1. दासबोध of संत रामदास is really a treatise in Marathi on conducting life, both with social responsibility and individual righteousness.
  1. Traditions in Indian culture detail three-fold approach to conduct of life – धर्म, अर्थ, काम. TirukkuraL in Tamil detail this approach by 133 sets of 10 verses each. It has three sections
  • ARattuppaL with 38 sets (380 couplets) which obviously details अर्थ-aspect i.e. earning and supporting the family, rather one’s practical life
  • PoruTpaL with 70 sets (700 couplets) seems to detail धर्म-aspect i.e. aspects of righteous behaviour
  • KAmattupaL with 25 sets (250 couplets) seems to detail काम-aspect i.e. family-life, especially between husband and wife.
  1. In Sanskrit there is शतकत्रयम् of भर्तृहरि – three centuries of verses सुभाषितानि i.e. good sayings
  • नीतिशतकम् – comprises 100+ verses सुभाषितानि on righteous behaviour
  • शृङ्गारशतकम् – comprises 100+ verses सुभाषितानि on family-life, especially between husband and wife
  • वैराग्यशतकम् – comprises 100+ verses सुभाषितानि on renunciation
  1. In response to my write-up on School Education at https://samskrutacharchaa.wordpress.com/2015/08/01/thoughts-on-school-education/ my son Rahul made an observation that “… One aspect of education that is sorely missed in schools is health and emotional well being. This is different from PE and sports. It is about how to understand and take care of our body and mind, knowledge of healthy eating, and awareness and management of emotions. More than intelligence, this is proven to be a high contributor to a person’s successful life. …”
  1. In गीता especially in 17th and 18th chapter there is good elucidation, rather, three-fold analysis सत्त्व-रज-तम (Best-Average-Bad)-analysis of almost every other aspect of life, such as
  • आहार (गीता १७-८, ९, १०) diet
  • यज्ञ (गीता १७-११, १२, १३) – It is difficult to give a single meaning of यज्ञ. Traditional meaning of यज्ञ as sacrificial ritual of oblation to a fire is grossly misleading. See various types of अग्नि-s  and यज्ञ-s mentioned in गीता itself, ब्रह्माग्नि (४-२५), संयमाग्नि (४-२६), आत्मसंयमयोगाग्नि (४-२७), द्रव्ययज्ञ, तपोयज्ञ, योगयज्ञ स्वाध्यायज्ञानयज्ञ (४-२८).
  • तप – Concept of तप is detailed as being of three types शारीरम् वाङ्मयम् मानसम् in श्लोक-s १७-१४ to १७-१६ and the three-fold सत्त्व-रज-तम-analysis is detailed in श्लोक-s १७-१७ to १७-१९
  • दान – I would think that दान should be understood to mean philanthropy. But in श्लोक १७-२२ indiscriminate philosophy is also chided upon.and is graded into तम-grade
  • त्याग (गीता १८-७, ८, ९) – sacrifice
  • ज्ञान (गीता १८-२०, २१, २२) – knowledge
  • कर्म (गीता १८-२३, २४, २५) – duty and action
  • कर्ता (गीता १८-२६, २७, २८) – doer
  • बुद्धि (गीता १८-३०, ३१, ३२) – intellect and discretion
  • धृति (गीता १८-३३, ३४, ३५) – forbearance
  • सुख (गीता १८-३७, ३८, ३९) – pleasure and/or happiness
  1. There is a composition by the name सदाचारः by श्रीमच्छंकराचार्य
  1. There have been famous stories quite entertaining for children, yet with morals especially in पञ्चतन्त्रम् and हितोपदेशः In पञ्चतन्त्रम्, as is clear from the name itself, the 71 stories are narrated in five sections – मित्रभेदः (22), मित्रसंप्राप्तिः (6), काकोलूकीयम् (16), लब्धप्रणाशः (12) and अपरीक्षितकारकम् (15 stories). The narration and the morals are summarized in as many as 1134 सुभाषितानि.
  1. Looking back at all of my own education I fail to recall whether I had any systematic value-education anytime.

Any education which does not have value-education inbuilt is certainly incomplete education. That needs to be set right. And there is so much literature available in Sanskrit. All that has to be brought into our education system, to build strong forthcoming generations healthy in body, mind and soul.

शुभमस्तु |


Thoughts on School Education

मन्येऽहं शालेयशिक्षणमिति प्रायः तच्छिक्षणम् यत् पञ्चवयसः आरभ्य पञ्चदशवयःपर्यन्तं भवति |

I would think that school education can be taken as the education that would happen over a span of 11 years from an age of 5 years up to the age of about 15 years.

तस्य सामान्यतः त्रयः विभागाः – प्राथमिकम्, माध्यमिकम्, उच्चमाध्यमिकम् च |

This is usually of three stages – Primary, Secondary and Higher Secondary.

तथापि मन्येऽहं शालेयशिक्षणस्य उद्दिष्टम् भवति यत् व्यक्तिमत्त्वविकासः भवेत् |

Nevertheless overall objective of school education would/should be to groom Personality development.

व्यक्तिमत्त्वविकासः प्रायः षड्विधैः विषयैः भवति |

Personality Development would have focus on 6 main faculties –

  1. गणितम् Mathematics – Arithmetic अङ्कगणितम् Algebra बीजगणितम्, Geometry भूमितिः Trigonometry त्रिकोणामितिः Calculus कलनगणितम्
  2. भाषाज्ञानम् Language-studies – Grammar व्याकरणम्, Prose गद्यानि, Poetry पद्यानि, Prosody and Figures of speech भाषालङ्काराः
  3. विज्ञानशास्त्राणि Sciences –  Physics पदार्थविज्ञानम्, Chemistry रसायनशास्त्रम्, Biology जीवशास्त्रम् Geosciences भूगोलविज्ञानम्, Astronomy खगोलविज्ञानम्
  4. समाजशास्त्राणि Social sciences – History इतिहासः, Economics अर्थशास्त्रम्, Law न्यायशास्त्रम्, Culture संस्कृतिः, Political sciences राज्यशास्त्रम्
  5. कलाः हस्तकलाः Arts and crafts – Elocution and debate वक्तृत्वम्, Acting अभिनयः, Drawing and painting चित्रलेखनम्, Music संगीतम् (Singing गायनम्, playing instruments वादनम्) Dance नृत्यम्
  6. क्रीडाः Games – Individual वैयक्तिकाः Team games सांघिकाः

एतद्विधे शिक्षणे स्पर्धात्मकः भावः अवश्यं भवितव्यः | संप्रतिकाले भवन्ति स्पर्धाः स्थानीयाः प्रादेशिकाः अन्तर्देशीयाः आन्तर्देशीयाश्च प्रायः सर्वेषु विषयेषु क्षेत्रेषु च | औलिम्पियड्-नाम्न्यः स्पर्धाः गणितविषये विज्ञानशास्त्राणां विषयेष्वपि भवन्ति | यः कोऽपि पाठ्यक्रमः रच्यते तस्मिन् एतावन्नैपुण्यं सहजतया भवितव्यम् | विद्यार्थिभ्यः उत्कृष्टमेव देयम् |

There ought to be a competitive urge inherent in such education. As of now there are competition-opportunities available at local, regional, national and International level, almost in every other subject and field. There are Olympiad-competitions in Mathematics and in Sciences also. Whatever syllabus is structured, that syllabus itself should provide for grooming such competence. Students ought to be offered only the best.

एतैः विषयैः शिक्षणं व्यवसायाभिमुखं नापि भवेत् | तथापि विद्यार्थिनः अग्रिमाय व्यवसायाभिमुखाय शिक्षणाय निश्चयेन सज्जाः भवेयुः | पञ्चदशवर्षीयेभ्यः एतावती सज्जता एव प्रायः समीचीनं लक्ष्यमिति मे मतिः |

Study of these subjects may not render vocational aptitude. However students will have right preparation for further vocational education. By my thinking, for 15-year olds, such preparation itself would be a good aim.

वयोमानानुसारिषु पाठ्यक्रमेषु उपरिनिर्दिष्टानां विषयाणां प्रायः एकादशस्तरेषु विश्लेषणं विचारणीयम् |

Curricula graded by age would be detailing the above subjects in 11 stages.

प्रायः ये पाठ्यक्रमाः इदानीं चलन्ति तेषु एतावद्विश्लेषणमस्त्येव |

We can presume that what curricula and syllabi are already operative do have such structure only.

अतः मुख्यतः विचारणीयं कथं पाठ्यक्रमाणां पाठ्यपुस्तकानि संस्कृतग्रन्थानामाधारेण भवन्ति रच्यन्ते वा | यतः संस्कृतज्ञानं प्रायः पद्यात्मकं भवति, तत् स्मृतिसुलभं भवति | एतावत्या सुलभतया यद्भारं विद्यार्थिनः सद्यः वहन्ति तदप्यूनं भवेत् खलु |

What needs to be deliberated is how the textbooks can be prepared based on Sanskrit-texts. Since most Sanskrit texts are in verse form, there is inherent ease for memorizing. Such ease in memorizing would help to reduce the burden of books, which children are carrying these days.

संस्कृतग्रन्थानामाधारेण रचितैः पाठ्यपुस्तकैः न केवलं विषयानां शिक्षणं भव्यम् | तद्विधैः पाठ्यपुस्तकैः राष्ट्राभिमानोऽपि परिपोषणीयः | तद्विधायाः संस्कृत्याः प्रसारणमपि भवति या मूलतः एव वैश्विका अस्ति जगद्धिताय अस्ति |

By such textbooks based on Sanskrit texts, not only would there be education in respective subjects, but there would be grooming of national pride and right orientation into a culture, which has been basically universal in its spirit and thoughts and hence for goodness all across the world.

शुभमस्तु !!


What all should be taught to children ?

किं किं पाठ्यं बालकान् ?

What all should be taught to children

My friend Mrs. Sharavari Keny who has done a course for Nursery Teachers, mentioned to me http://www.teachertrainingindia.co.in/

Truly I got quite some interesting information. There is a menu-item “Courses” where there is a drop-down menu listing

  1. Phonics training
  2. Early childhood education course
  3. Early childhood care-education course
  4. Montessori Training course
  5. Nursery Teacher training Course
  6. Pre-Primary Education Course

(1) A click on Phonics Training leads to following information –

“… Phonics is a method for teaching reading and writing of the English language. Phonics involves teaching children to connect sounds with letters or group of letters.

Written language is like a code, so knowing the sounds of letters and letter combinations will help children to decode words as they read. Knowing phonics also helps children to know which letters to use as they write words. Therefore, learning phonics helps children to read and spell well. It creates bright children, boosts and helps them acquire logical skills in reading and writing and prevents rote learning. Since the turn of the 20th century, phonics has been widely used in primary education and in teaching English language literacy throughout the world.

Most children who are poor in reading tend to rely heavily on one reading strategy, such as the use of context and picture clues, and exclude other strategies that might be more appropriate. To become skilled, fluent readers, children need to have a repertoire of strategies to draw on.

One such effective strategy is phonics. Phonics instruction helps students to comprehend text. It helps the student to decode words. Decoding words aids in the development of word recognition, which in turn increases reading fluency. Reading fluency improves reading comprehension because as children are no longer struggling with decoding words, they can concentrate on making meaning from the text. In addition, phonics instruction improves spelling ability because it emphasizes the spelling patterns that become familiar from reading. Studies show that half of all English words can be spelled with phonics rules that relate one letter to one sound. …”

On reading the above, one gets to realize that Phonics training is so very easy with देवनागरी. The final aim of Phonics training is to train children towards spelling of words. In case of देवनागरी training for spelling is just not needed.

With English, however good the Phonics training be, I would guess that it will be hard for children to comprehend why the sound वेअर् has two different spellings – wear and ware (so also for बेअर् – bear and bare टायर् – Tire and tyre). This is because the English, rather, the Roman alphabet is not phonic.

With देवनागरी and also with scripts of most Indian languages, there is no such confusion.

(2) Early childhood education course – A click on this sub-menu item gets one the following information –

“… Early childhood education course judiciously combines theoretical knowledge with practical experience. The Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) curriculum has been meticulously planned as per the need of the present day teaching profession. It has incorporated the latest methods and trends of teaching which enable you to meet the demands of the school and the students. It comprises the theory as well as practical subjects.

The theory of Early Childhood Education Course includes topics related to child psychology, school organization, teaching methods and teaching aids, components of child health and nutrition etc. …”

These subjects really are बालमानसशास्त्रम्, शिक्षणसंसाधनानि, बालसङ्गोपनम्

“… The practical part of teacher training includes internship, mock classroom sessions, art and craft, performing arts (rhymes, story-telling, songs) and co-curricular activities like organizing field trips, lesson plans, class observation etc. …”

These courses seem to be available only in English. Should not these courses be in Indian languages for Indian children ?

Coming to the mention of “performing arts (rhymes, story-telling, songs)”, for Indian children,

  • the rhymes and songs should rather be श्लोक-s, स्तोत्र-s, सुभाषितानि
  • the stories should be from पञ्चतन्त्र, हितोपदेश, रामायणम्, महाभारतम्, पुराणानि, अकबर-बिरबलयोः, तेनाली-रामन्-वर्यस्य कथाः. We have such a vast repertoire !

I have seen Indian parents sending their children both to Nursery schools and also to बालसंस्कारवर्ग-s or to शिशुविहार-s, simply because the so-called Nursery schools teach children in English education. This extra activity and anxiety of sending children to बालसंस्कारवर्ग-s or to शिशुविहार-s should just not be necessary, if the education in Nursery schools becomes Indian education, focused on Indian culture भारतीय-संस्कृति

Is it not an irony that Sanskrit is compulsory even in children’s education in St. James School in London, but in India, Indian parents need to send their children both to Nursery schools and also to बालसंस्कारवर्ग-s or to शिशुविहार-s, if at all the बालसंस्कारवर्ग-s or शिशुविहार-s are available in the neighborhood ?!

All this has to change.

Actually, what is new in all this ? Grandmothers had been doing this so very wonderfully for hundreds and thousands of years and with far more love and care and affection and with the smartness of all ancient wisdom, including that of child-care and child-health.

There is no point in lamenting over what went wrong, why it went wrong, how it went wrong. Let us put it back on track. Sooner the better.

शुभमस्तु |


Thoughts on Child-level education

मनस्यागच्छति यत् पाठ्यक्रमाः वयोमानानुसारिणः भवेयुः

Curricula should be graded by age

वयोमानानुसारिणि पाठ्यक्रमे बाल्यावस्थायाः विचारः

Thoughts on Child-level education

पाठनारंभस्तु बाल्यादेवावश्यकः यथा

Education should begin right from childhood

  1. मलमूत्रविसर्जनमत्र तत्र न कर्तव्यमिति पाठनं प्रायः प्रथमम् | दृश्यताम् – Learn how your child can make the switch from diapers to the toilet in a few days – or even an afternoon – with one popular potty training method. (See – http://www.babycenter.com/0_potty-training-in-three-days-or-less_10310078.bc)
  2. कुतूहलं खलु बालसङ्गोपनविषये के विचाराः आयुर्वेदे ? Is there anything detailed in आयुर्वेद about nursing of children ?
  • 2.1 शरीरावयवानां सक्षमता कथं वर्धते स्वभावतः संस्कारैश्च ? How does strength or faculties of limbs and organs develop in the natural course and by training ?
  • 2.2 बुद्धेः सक्षमता कथं वर्धते स्वभावतः संस्कारैश्च ? How does intellectual faculty develop in the natural course and by training
  1. बाल्यमिति आजन्मतः सार्धैकवर्षतावत् अष्टादशमासानां कालावधिः खलु ? Can childhood be considered as the period of 18 from birth to age of one and half years ?
  2. 2002-तमे वर्षे मम पौत्रः सार्धैकवर्षीयः आसीत् | तं अङ्के गृहीत्वा अहं एकां “Toyland Train”-नाम्नीं  DVD-चक्रिकां चालयन्नासम् | तां चक्रिकां वारंवारं दृष्ट्वा श्रुत्वा च बहु हार्दं शिक्षणमभवन्मम पौत्रस्य | किं किमासीत् तस्यां चक्रिकायामित्यस्य विवरणं अस्त्यत्र

In 2002, when my grandson was barely 18 months old, I got a DVD “Toyland Train”. I used to play the DVD taking my grandson in my lap. It is nostalgic for me what amount of training he got by watching and listening and interacting with the DVD. Contents of the DVD can be read here → http://www.amazon.com/Encore-13800-Muppet-Babies-Toyland/dp/B000050AWJ)

Preschool learning software featuring the Muppet Babies, A fun and educational activity at every train stop Learning activities designed to be played at multiple levels, 8 learning areas including shapes, body parts, animals, and more, 5 levels of game play; games suitable for ages 2 to 5

यद्यपि चक्रिका द्विवर्षतः पञ्चवर्षीयाणां बालकेभ्यः इति उल्लिखितासीत् सार्धैकवर्षीयाय मम पौत्राय किमपि काठिन्यं नासीत् | बालकानां ग्रहणशक्तिविषये अस्माकं कल्पनाः विचाराः एव न्यूनाः भवन्तीति मे मतिः अनुभवश्च |

Although they say that the DVD is for children of 2 to 5 years of age, I have direct experience of grasping capacity of children. It seems our own concepts of grasping capacity of children are inferior to actual.

  1. We should have clearer concepts of what children should learn. Nursery rhymes such as “Humpty Dumpty sat on  a wall” are senseless. Instead children can be taught
  • 5.1 श्लोक-s, स्तोत्र-s, सुभाषितानि.
  • 5.2 Reading the clock
  • 5.3 Family-tree – with growing number of small households, close relatives are appearing to be becoming distant relatives.
  1. बाल्यानां शिक्षणं क्रीडयैव भवितव्यम् | Adventures of Tom Sawyer-पुस्तके साधु निर्दिष्टं मार्क-ट्वेन्-वर्येण “Work is what one is obliged to do, play is what one is not obliged to do” कति आह्लाददायकं भवेत्सर्वं शिक्षणं यदि सर्वं क्रीडया एव पठ्यते !! प्रायः कश्चित् तथैव विचारः भास्कराचार्यस्य विचारः यत्तेन तस्य गणितग्रन्थस्य नाम लीलावतीति अभिहितम् | दृश्यतां चित्रेऽस्मिन् किञ्चिदास्तरणं वर्णाक्षराणामङ्कानाम् च

Education of children should happen gamefully. Playschool is a very charming word. How rightly did Mr. Mark Twain coin the phrase in his Adventures of Tom Sawyer “Work is what one is obliged to do, play is what one is not obliged to do”. See below the picture of an alphabet and numbers mat. My son had got one for my grandson.


 Child with soccer ball  Soccer with child

Values-based Education

Since Universal and eternal values is the important essence of संस्कृत the language and संस्कृति cultural richness, inherent to it, it becomes a point to ponder upon, whether, education, if conducted through courses, syllabi and textbooks compiled in संस्कृत and based on संस्कृत texts will become values-based education.

I hence posted following message to a couple of Google-groups, of which I am a member and to others, whom I have known to be interested in most things संस्कृत.

संप्रतिकाले योगोऽभवन्मिलितुं श्रीमन्तं प्रफुल्ल-पण्ड्या-महोदयम् | अभिभावितोस्मि खलु तस्य विचारैः | संक्षेपेण तस्य भूमिका एतावता |

ज्ञातं मानीतञ्च यत् संस्कृतवाङ्मये विविधविषयाणां ज्ञानं निश्चयेन वर्तते | तथापि यदि कस्यापि विषयस्य अभ्यासाः बालवयसः आरभ्य
विश्वविद्यालयीनाभ्यासक्रमेण प्रस्तवनीयाः, कथं भवेत् सः क्रमः केषां पुस्तकानां संहितानां संदर्भग्रन्थानामाधारेण वा |

ज्ञातं मानीतञ्च यत् गुरुकुलाः आसन् | तत्र आचार्याः छात्रान् विविधान् विषयान् पाठयन्तः आसन् | तेषु पाठनेषु क्रमाः अपि आसन्नेव | पाठनाय संहिताः
अप्यासन् | अप्यस्ति कापि उपलब्धिः कुत्रापि कः सः क्रमः कास्ताः संहिताः एतद्विषये ? यद्युपलब्धिर्नास्ति अपि शक्या तेषां पुनर्रचना ?

अधुनापि शालासु, महाविद्यालयेषु विश्वविद्यालयेष्वपि पाठ्यक्रमास्तु सन्त्येव | तथापि न ज्ञातं कस्य विषयस्य पाठ्यक्रमस्य कस्मिन् स्तरे का संहिता पाठनीया
इति | अपि शक्यमेतद्विधं सङ्कलनम् ?

प्रफुल्ल-पण्ड्या-महोदयेन संचालितेन गुजरातराज्यस्थितेन महुवाग्रामस्थितेन शाश्वत-संस्कृति-प्रतिष्ठानेन कृषिविषयस्य पाठ्यक्रमस्य एका पुस्तिका
सिद्धास्ति |

ज्ञायते यत् सर्वस्मिन् भारतवर्षे द्वादशशताब्दतः एकोनविंशतिशताब्दतावत् सप्तशतवर्षाणि तावत् भास्कराचार्याणां लीलावती-बीजगणितमादयः ग्रन्थाः
संहितारूपेण प्रयुक्ताः आसन् | गणितविषये वैदिकगणितसूत्राण्यपि विख्यातानि सन्ति अधुना |

अस्ति मत्सार्धमेकं धनञ्जय-देशपाण्डे-महोदयस्य पुस्तकं “वेदेषु विज्ञानम्” इति |
आयुर्वेदस्तु एकः वेदः एव इति मानीतः | अद्यापि पाठ्यतेऽपि | आयुर्वेदस्य पाठ्यक्रमस्त्वस्ति | किं न तस्मात् शरीरशास्त्रस्य आरोग्यशास्त्रस्य प्राथमिकाः विचाराः बालान् शालासु पाठनीयाः ?

संक्षेपतः सङ्कलनानि कर्तव्यानि सन्ति विविधानां विषयाणां क्रमिताभ्यासाय केषु स्तरेषु काः संहिताः पाठनीयाः इति |

प्रार्थयन्ते सूचनाः विधायकाः टीकाटिप्पण्यश्च |

(2) I got one response मम संदेशस्य उत्तरे प्राप्तः अयं विमर्शः –

संस्कृतमाध्यमेन पाठनाय अधुनाऽपि पर्याप्ता पाठ्यसामग्री इतस्ततोऽस्ति।
तथापि नवीनानां पाठ्यसामग्रीणां निर्माणमाधुनिककालोपयोगितया कर्तव्यमेव।
(3) I replied to this as follows अयं विमर्षोऽपि मया निम्नमिव उत्तरितोऽस्ति –
धन्यवादाः भवतः विमर्षणाय | साधूक्तं यत्
  1. पाठ्यसामग्री इतस्ततोऽस्तीति | यद्यदितस्ततोऽस्ति तस्य विषयानुसारि सङ्कलनं कर्तव्यमिति केचन उपक्रमाः संभवन्ति |
  2. इदमपि साधु यत् नवीनानां पाठ्यसामग्रीणां निर्माणमाधुनिककालोपयोगितया कर्तव्यम् | तद्विधाः केचन अन्याः उपक्रमाः संभवन्ति |

द्वाभ्यामपि दृष्टिभ्यां समवायस्य सदस्याः कति योगदानं दास्यन्तीति ज्ञातुं मम सन्देशस्य भूमिका |

While I keep waiting to receive more responses, to go by the edict “Charity begins at home”, i have started some detailing of this thought by myself. The details as will emerge will be presented in further post(s)